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How to choose and purchase ballast rakers correctly?

发布时间: 2016-06-21 16:56   439 次浏览

With the disappearance of demographic dividend, the recruitment of manual operation in mine workings has become more and more difficult. And with the needs of safe production in mines, more and more tunnel projects choose to use ballast rakers in mucking and removing. Thus, how to choose and purchase a right ballast raker is very important. Here are our company’s suggestions:

1. Good After-sales Service

     Ballast raker is an engineering machine working in the tunnels. Owing to the hostile environment, all kinds of unexpected breakdowns appear inevitably. Thus, systematic training and good after-sales service are the preferred qualifications.

2. Transverse Dimensions of Tunnels

     What size is the transverse dimension of tunnels? For ballast rakers, the general requirements of transverse dimension of tunnels is more than 1.8m*1.8m. The general mode of ballast rakers is named after the theoretical amount of muck removal. For example, ballast raker 30 should remove ballasts 30 per hour. However, the practical work cannot arrive at this amount. But according to the mucking amount of 1.8*1.8*2 m explosion, the theoretical amount of muck removal of one cannon is 6.5*6.5*6.5. Thus, we should take the muck capacity of slag trucks and round-trip time into consideration. If the truck can hold the slag of 1*1*1, the receiving time is about 2minutes and add the round-trip time, we can work out the mucking time of one cannon theoretically. In the practical work, what affects mucking efficiency usually lies in round-trip time. Generally speaking, choosing ballast rakers which can go through tunnels can meet the needs of mucking and removing.

3. The Hardness Index of Ballasts

If the hardness index of ballasts is from level IV to level IX, belt conveyors can be adopted. If the hardness index is above level IV, scrapers are recommended. The advantage of the belt conveyors is their low price while they also have disadvantage ---a bit fragile, which means that sometimes the belt has to be changed aperiodicly. However, despite the higher price and louder noise, ballast rakers of scraper type can just make up this weakness.

1.       The Factors of Mine Quality

     For coal mine and aluminum mine, the explosion-proof type is needed and the non explosion-proof type is for other kinds of mine.

2.       The Gradient of Tunnels

     Is the ground flat? If not, what is the degree of the slope? In general, the tyre type is applied within 6 degrees. The crawler type is better recommended when the slope is above 6dgrees. General crawler type can be applied within the slope of 10 degrees while the steep slope crawler type for special purpose is better recommended if the slope is above 10 degrees.( Until now, our company only provides the 18-degree inclined shaft type while other kinds are still needed to be customized.

3.       The Surface Condition of Tunnels

     The surface condition of tunnels decides whether to choose the ballast rakers which have high thrust or not, if the surface is smooth and wet and working face is uneven, we advise you to use the Mucking Loader which has a little higher thrust, such as four-wheeled drive type or to choose crawler type or box type. (The ballast rakers of box type made by our company are four-wheeled drive.)

4.       The Digging Depth of Tunnels

     If you contract a short-time tunnel project and you are not sure to continue using ballast bakers after the completion of the project, you can choose to purchase cheaper Mucking Loader of bridge type or box type. If mucking is a long-time project, we advise you to purchase the crawler type because it has such features as high thrust, strong adaptability to surface, low fault rate and longevity.

5.       Diverse Selective Assembly

a. Selective Assembly of Diesel Engines

     The ballast rakers with diesel engines can work without electricity, but they will produce pollution in tunnels to some extent. By doing this, the procurement cost increases. Thus, without this need, you don’t use diesel engines to save cost.

b. Selective Assembly of the Machine Tyres

     If the ballast rakers are bridge type or box type, you can choose engineering pneumatic tyres and solid tyres. Besides, it depends on the surface condition of tunnels. If unnecessary, you can use standard engineering pneumatic tyres.

c. Selective Assembly of Operating System

Choosing which kind of operating system determines the cost of machines. Taking the operating flexibility into consideration, you can choose pilot valve handle to operate. However, complex hydraulic oil system is destined to increase higher cost. On the contrast, as for multiple handle operating system, the oil circuit is simple, and maintenance is easy and you can grasp fast how to operate machines after a few hours. And the cost is relatively low.

6.       The Comparison of the Performance of Machines

At present, there are several common kinds of ballast rakers in market such as bridge type (which is under obsoleting), box type and crawler type. Here are their advantages and disadvantages:







Automotive front and rear bridge ballast rakers


This type adopts automotive front and rear bridge as chasis---the brace for walking and transporting.

Marketing purchase is very convenient. The cost is low and a set only costs several thousand yuan.

Because Mucking Loaders work in tunnels, they may collide. The half shafts of bridge type are vulnerable with high fault rate. The downtime is long and the overall efficiency is low. Especially because of its restricted loading bearing, it can only be used for belt conveyors. Given this, our company has no longer produced this type since March,2012 unless clients customize such machines.







Gear chain ballast rakers of box type










This type adopts the box structure as chasis. The box structure is specially designed for ballast rakers. The whole chasis is a closed box structure with a hydraulic motor in each of the two outsides as the drive to put chain wheels an axles in motion and to force tyres to move. And both are back and front driving motors.

This type is the improved rakers of bridge type. It overcomes the shortcomings of vulnerable half shafts, which greatly reduces the downtime. At the same time, because of this kind’s high loading bearing, it can be the wheel scraper or the operating mechanism can adopt the working arms of excavators.

Because the processing of box structure is very coplex, the cost of a box structure is five or six times as high as automotive bridge ballast rakers. ( the cost of only two motors is the same as that of bridge chasis.) Clients often mistake this kind for the bridge type and it acceptability is low.







Ballast rakers of crawler type









The bottom belt, which is often used for engineering machines, is steel track.

This type gathers the advantages of the box type. At the same time, because this type can adopt to the ground condition, it is particularly suitable to load mines and slag in the mine tunnels.

Because the total cost of the crawler is too high and the crawler is often equipped with pilot valves, scrapers and so onmaking the total price of this type higher than the wheel ballast rakers.








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